Darkfield Microscopy

Live Blood Microscopy
Copyright By Dr. Paul Mach, DN

Do you have healthy and powerful blood, or is your blood tired and weak? Learning about the delicate metabolic balance occurring on a microscopic level within your body could mean the difference between living a healthy, energetic lifestyle or not feeling as well as you know you should.

Your overall health can be improved by learning about metabolic influences that affect you daily. Through nutritional counseling and by locating subtle metabolic changes that cause your body to become out of balance, you are able to regain the health, energy and vitality you know you deserve.

Darkfield Microscopy now allows you to observe subtle conditions within your blood that can negatively affect your overall health. By using this specialized microscope, you and your trained health care professional are able to observe your blood on a television monitor. This educational experience will allow you to evaluate shapes and other properties of individual blood cells including some conditions that cannot easily be found by using traditional methods of blood analysis.

Microscopy is a valuable tool in evaluating and educating you on the status of your current blood and nutritional condition.

A microscopic photograph of healthy, powerful blood shows the red blood cells to be round, evenly shaped and freely floating in the plasma. The plasma itself is clear with few fat globules. There are no signs of clotting, bacteria or other foreign matter, candida or stress. This is the kind of blood a healthy person should have flowing through their circulatory system.

n order to understand the examples of “unhealthy blood,” a brief overview of the function of blood within the circulatory system is imperative.

Your blood plays an integral role in your overall health. Although nearly 80% water, blood is a complex liquid that comprises approximately 7.5% of a person’s total weight. An average sized man has about 1 ½ gallons of blood, while a woman has slightly less than a gallon.

Whole human blood consists of red blood cells, white blood cells and blood platelets that float in plasma, a straw colored liquid made up of about 90% water. Plasma contains glucose, hormones, organic acids, and salts, and serves as a medium for 1.circulating the suspended blood components throughout the body’s network of arteries, veins and capillaries; 2.delivering nutrients to the tissues and organs; 3.carrying minerals, hormones, vitamins, and antibodies; and 4.removing waste products. Many substances vital to health are recycled throughout the body.

Blood travels from the heart through the pulmonary artery, picks up oxygen, flows back to the heart, and is then pumped out into the body. After releasing the oxygen to the cells and taking out the

carbon dioxide (the waste product of metabolism), the blood returns to the lungs, where the carbon dioxide is exhaled.

It completes this circuit in 20 seconds. During its journey through the body, the blood also picks up hormones from the thyroid, adrenal and other glands and transports them to specific organs.

In general, the blood helps to maintain equilibrium (homeostasis) of the internal environment. In addition to bathing the body’s tissues in oxygen and collecting waste products, the blood’s major regulatory functions involve nutrition to the cells, defense mechanisms, and maintaining proper body temperature. The blood also facilitates the body’s adaptability to different conditions including changes in climate, stress, physical activity, new dietary habits, and resistance to injury and infectious organisms.

There are three types of blood cells:
1. Red Blood Cells or Erythrocytes
2. White Blood Cells
3. Platelets or Thrombocytes

1. Red Blood Cells or erythrocytes are formed in the red bone marrow of the skull, ribs, vertebrae, and other major marrow containing bones. Although the total number of RBC varies with age, altitude, activity and temperature the average individual has about 35 trillion. These cells transport oxygen from the lungs to other body tissues, collect and dispel carbon dioxide, and play an important role in regulating the acid base balance of the blood. RBC circulate in the blood stream for about 120 days, after which they are trapped and broken down in the spleen that filters and stores blood. The liver and spleen, which also can function as back up sites for RBC reserves in an emergency, act as salvage yards for iron reclaimed from dead red cells.

2. White Blood Cells are the principle component of the body’s immune system. Acting as scavengers, they assist in repairing and protecting your body. WBC are formed either in the bone marrow, thymus or lymph nodes which serve as defense outposts against germs attacking the body. They travel from one site to another through the arteries, veins, and capillaries, but also leave the bloodstream and filter into the lymphatic tissue to fight invaders.
Although white blood cells are formed in large quantities, many die in a few days. As a result, the red blood cells significantly outnumber the WBC. A healthy person has approximately 75 billion WBC in their blood. These are broken down into two categories:

1.Granulocytes, which consists of Neutrophils, Eosinophils and Basophils, and

2.Agranulocytes, which is then subdivided into the B-cells, T-cells and Monocytes. Though they differ in type, size and defense function, they work harmoniously and act as a well-trained army. The microscopy demonstration allows us to observe WBC to see if they are performing adequately.

3. Platelets or Thrombocytes are formed in the bone marrow and play an important role in blood coagulation and clot formation. In fact one of the blood’s most important properties is its self-sealing ability. The life span of a platelet is between eight to ten days.

Live Blood Microscopy given by your health professional is for educational and research purposes only and is not intended to be a medical diagnosis.

The following are a few examples of what may be observed:

Thrombocyte aggregation (thrombosis) is easily identifiable. Platelets, which normally flow individually in healthy blood vessels, may build up and adhere to each other. The build up of platelets can cause small clots and a narrowing of the blood vessel due to adhesions to damaged vessels. This leads to impaired circulation, heart attacks, strokes, high cholesterol, candida and headaches.

Protein linkage is a condition that gives clues that the body is having a difficult time digesting the protein that is ingested. RBC will adhere to each other and appear “linked” or sticky.

Rouleau is French for “stacks of coins” and is literally the sticking together and stacking up of RBC. Dehydration, blood protein abnormalities, mental or physical stress, dehydration can cause rouleau. This results in poor circulation of the blood and therefore decreases the amount of oxygen and nutrient available for the body to use. This condition results in fatigue and progressive weakness.

Erythrocyte aggregation is sometimes called “blood sludge”. This process is even worse than rouleau formation. Saturated fats, dehydration and biological and neurological disorders are known to cause this adhesion.

Microcytes are small RBC and are 6 microns or less in diameter and are indicators of iron deficiency or microcytic anemia.

Macrocytes are large RBC and are 8.5 microns or larger in diameter and may be due to food allergies, B12 or folic acid deficiency and megaloblatic anemia.

Elliptocytes are oval RBC and may be associated with iron deficiency or B12 and folic acid anemia. This may also be a hereditary condition.

Poikilocytes are deformed RBC that show antioxidant deficiency, weakened cell lipid layers, and or liver and spleen conditions.

Echinocytes are often deteriorating RBC but may also indicate oxidative stress in one of many forms.

Drepanocytes or sickle cell anemia is a hereditary condition.

Hemolysis is a disintegration or rupturing of RBC and is a condition often associated with a weakened bilipid layer due to defective or poor tocopherol absorption.

Chylomicrons or chylous material are blood fats and are frequently correlated to what was eaten prior to testing. If present in excess while fasting they may correlate with the disability of the liver to clear fats.

Fungal forms and candida albicans are but a few of the many types of fungal forms that occur in blood

Fibrin formation or spicules are conditions that involve toxicity of the liver and/or the bowel. This may show with recent alcohol overuse, mediations or heavy metal burdens.

Crystals can be due to bowel and/or liver toxicity, constipation, heavy metals, elevated uric acid or the inability of the body to absorb calcium.

Neutrophils are the most abundant WBC and are likely to be the first to encounter an intruding microorganism. Their job is nonspecific phagococytosis or destroying of microorganisms that do not belong in the system.

Neutrophil viability determined by the size and mobility of these WBC. Poor immunity, infection, and malabsorption of nutrients can affect neutrophils.

Neutrophil Hypersegmentation is a sign of B12 and/or folic acid deficiency. There may also be poor immunity, PMS or depression.

Eosinophils are large bright WBC and have one or two lobes and are frequently seen with allergies or protozoal and fungal infections.

Lymphocytes, or B and T cells are agranulocytes and are derived from bone marrow, the spleen and lymphoid tissue. Their function is to produce circulating antibodies and express cellular immunity.


Doctor Paul Mach, DN, ND, CCN 352.406.2109